West-Bengal receives substantial amount of rainfall due to its proximity to the Bay of Bengal yet we are unable to make full use of it due to some natural constraints. Rapid rise in demand of water in all sectors of domestic, industrial and agricultural uses during the last decade has started throwing up several problems in water resources management. So the optimal management of available water Resource has become a major issues world over.Due to occurrence of re-current droughts, advent of high yielding varieties and introduction of an incentive orient agricultural pricing policy paved the way for irrigate agriculture is essentially dependent on irrigation, not only in Rabi/ Boro season but also in Khariff seasons in the event of drought or inadequate rainfall. Water Resource are being utilized in the State from medium and major sized irrigation schemes whose culturable command area above 2000 hector and from minor irrigation schemes with the C.C.A up to 2000 hector as per the criteria laid down by the planning commission all irrigation schemes having Culturable Command Area (CCA) of 2000 hector or less are classified as MINOR IRRIGATION SCHEME.
Thus the marginal farmers who constitute the majority of cultivators and cultivate major portion of agricultural and in WB can afford to individually investment on certain of irrigation sources. The Present policy of the government has been to create new sources and hand them over to the Beneficiary Committees through the Panchayat for their operation maintance,optimal use and overall management.The Main field of activities of the Water Resource Development Directorate is the development of both surface water and Ground water resources. The schemes which are implemented by this directorate for development of water resource under MI Sector.CADA:
One of the major challenges that India faced in the post-independence era is that of feeding her vast population. In India, the agriculture being total dependent on rainfall only Khariff crop could be raised in the short monsoon months spanning from June to September, thereby putting serve limitation on the total cereal production of the country.Immediately after independence, numbers of major irrigation projects were taken up and implemented during different plan periods to bring maximum possible agriculture land within assured irrigation. By early seventies, most of these major irrigation projects were completed and there remained very limited scope to bring in additional culturable command area under irrigation through execution of more of such major irrigation projects. But agricultural production and productivity needed further increase and improvement, for assuring nutritious food to ever increasing India population.Critical overview and in-depth analysis of the performances of the completed major irrigation projects by Irrigation Commission (1972), Committee of Irrigation Ministers (1973) and Planning Commission (1973) revealed that there were large gaps between irrigation potential created and irrigation potential utilized in case of their projects and the crop yields also were much low compared to those of other countries.
The Irrigation Commission recommended systematic development of the command areas through irrigated management of all agricultural activities within the command areas. These considerations led to the concept of comprehensive command area development Programme by bringing in various agriculture activities under one authority. Finally,in 1974-75 Command Area Development Programme was launched by Govt.of India, with the objective to bridge the gap between irrigation potential created and utilized through micro level infrastructure development and efficient farm water management to enhance agricultural production and productivity and to improve socio-economic conditions of the farmers.In West Bengal, Cad Programme was started from 1974-75 in Kangshabati, Mayurakshi and Damodar Valley Projects. The original irrigation projects were completed in all these case.Teesta Barrage Project was started in the eighties decade and is still ongoing. Presently the Project has been declared as a National Project and 1st Sub stage of Stage I of Phase-I of the Project is expected to be completed by 2014-15. The Teesta Command Area Development Authority was set up in 1999-2000.SWID:
State Water Investigation Directorate (SWID), an independent Directorate under the Department of Water Resources Investigation & Development, Government of West-Bengal,is headed by
the directorate assisted by engineering Wing, Geological Wing, Meteorological Unit, Chemical Laboratories, Data processing, Storage & Retrieval Cell, a Geophysical unit, to carry out investigation and assessment of water resources both in quality and
quantity of the State. It also shares expertise with various government developmental agencies in various ground water and surface water projects for agriculture, industrial and drinking water development in the State including augmentation of water
resources through implementation of various conservation/artificial recharge schemes.SWID works various types those are:
About the Project - The Legal documents of the project have been signed between Government of India, Government of West Bengal & World Bank and implemented by Water Resources Investigation and Development Department of West Bengal from 'Jan2012 to Dec2017'.The Project aims to bring sustainable development and management of surface and ground water resources to increase agricultural productivity and rural employment generation by developing different Minor Irrigation structure with command area of 5 hectares and above. The project also aims to enhance agriculture based income of small and marginal farmers through sustainable use of irrigation resources. The project will be implemented in single Cropping area of 18 districts, West Bengal with the priority to tribal and backward villages.The project development objective is to enhance agricultural production of small and marginal farmers in the project area. This would be achieved through Strengthening community-based institutions i.e. Water User Association WUA on irrigation management, operation and maintenanceConstruction and development of minor irrigation schemes (surface & ground water)Support to agricultural development, including provision of agricultural services, encouraging crop diversification and use of new technologies, and creating income generating opportunities. Total 4660 number of MI structures has been estimated to be taken up for creation of additional 1.39 Lac ha of cultivable Command Area (CCA) with an estimated cost of Rs.1380.00 cores.This will be achieved through development of minor irrigation schemes, strengthening community-based irrigation management, and support to agricultural development, including provision of agricultural services, encouraging crop diversification and use of new technologies, and creating income generating opportunities.WBSMICL:
West Bengal State Minor Irrigation Corporation Ltd, was created on 29th January,1974 under Companies Act 1956 (No I 1956) with the following objects:-
- To erect, improve, install, manage and arrange for operation and working of Tube wells, River lifts and other Minor Irrigation Projects and manufacture spare parts, machinery, tools, implements, materials, substance, good or things of any description which in the opinion of the company are likely to promote or advance the Development of Minor Irrigation in the State of West Bengal.
- To take over from the Govt. of West Bengal any existing system of State owned tube wells, river lifts as may be in good working condition along with connected lands buildings, assets, work and any of the Projects connected with the installation, maintenance and operation of such tube wells, with the rights and liabilities of the Govt. of West Bengal so far as they relate to such tube wells, lands, buildings, assets, work or projects.
- To undertake the installation and construction of tube wells, river lifts and other Minor irrigation schemes on behalf of private individuals, associations, institutions, Panchayat, Govt. Companies.
- To engage in the processing manufacture and sale of River lifts, Tube well equipment’s, accessories, spare parts, machinery, plants or any other commercial or industrial products connected therewith.
- To setup and maintain laboratories, workshops and other works for providing technical guidance and repair facilities as also stock such materials and stores and sell stores concerning tube wells and Minor Irrigation Projects.
- To provide tube well equipments or plants and machinery connected therewith in rental basis to any private individual or association, company or departments.
- To carry out all kinds of ground water exploration and in particular to quantity the ground water resources in different areas, arrange for systematic exploration, all kinds of survey works and to search for and obtain information in regard to ground water resources and to regulate the installation of deep and shallow tube wells in the state of West Bengal for the development Minor Irrigation.
- To provided technical know-how, loans and equipments for the installation of tube wells to the individuals, associations, companies, institutions, Panchayat and corporations in the state of West Bengal.
- To set up demonstration firms, to introduce improved and scientific methods of the use of land and utilization of lands water resources.
- To supply seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and to provide extension service and facilities for mechanized cultivation to the farmers.
- To sell, dispose of transfer, let on lease or hire any undertaking, Project stores, lands, factory, business or any other assets and rights of the company and any Government or company or association or concern or individual on such terms and conditions as many be determined by the company.
- To promote and operate schemes for the development of Minor Irrigation in the state of West Bengal and for that purpose to prepare and get or cause to be prepared the feasibility reports, detailed project report, market studies, statistics and other relevant information for the establishment of any undertaking and to promote and establish companies and associations for the execution of such projects.
- To distribute and sell water pumped through the tube wells owned by the company to individuals, Panchayat, companies corporations, Governments, and other concerns at such rates, terms and conditions as may be determined by the company from time to time and to realize to charges therefore along with penalties, surcharges, if any.
- To acquire lands and other properties and to develop them suitably for the purposes of the company and to make them available on such terms and conditions as may be agreed upon, to any Government, individuals, firms, company, association or concern.
- To carry on the business of engineers and manufactures of tube wells and other machinery, plants implements and tools, equipments, apparatus accessories and other similar goods and the production, manufacture and preparation of any other materials which may be usefully or conveniently combined with the manufacturing business of the company. WBAICL:
With the modernization of agriculture, it was felt that more and more fertilizer, seeds, pesticides will be needed and demand for appropriate farm machinery, agricultural implements/equipment will be increased so as to enable the farmers of the State to perform different operations efficiently to increase the agricultural production. This required development of agro based industries.Towards these objectives, Government of India took initiative for setting up Agro Industries Corporation in various states and accordingly West Bengal Agro Industries Corporation Ltd. (WBAICL) was established in the state of West Bengal. WBAICL was incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 on 16th August, 1968. Earlier, Govt. of India and Govt. of West Bengal had contributed towards paid-up share capital. Later, the entire paid-up share capital held by Govt. of India was transferred in favor of Govt. of West Bengal. This Corporation is, now, under the administrative control of Water Resources Investigation & Development Department, Government of West Bengal. The capital structure of WBAICL as on 31.05.2012.stands as follows:-
- Authorized capital: 50,00,00,000 (5000000 Equinity shares of Rs.100/-each)
- Paid-up-capital: 8,40,52000 (840520 Equity share of Rs. 100/-each)